Friday, December 1, 2006

Those Who are Spread Out.

In the shelter of the refugee, they hope that they can build their self concept, get rid of their trauma, and start their new life. A hollow expectation.

Oleh Muhlis Suhaeri

Sambas, 1999. the flame of hatred is burnt. Those people are grilled by the anger. The riot exploded. The people of Sambas Malay in one side and the Maduranese in the other side. The riot caused many victims from both sides. Children lost their father. Wives lost their husband. Many people hurt, the dead was uncountable.

For the survivors they suffer too. They were expelled from theirs land, and their home for years. In 2001, The National Coordination Agent (Bakornas PBP) did the census to them. It revealed that the total number of the refugee was 58.5 thousand

The government gave them the land in Tebang Kacang. Sungai Raya sub-district, Pontianak. It is about 25 km from Pontianak. Although it is quite near from the capital city, Tebang Kacang is difficult to be reached by the vehicle. It is not included that the land where they lived is peat land.

The infrastructure bring the obstacle for them. People can use the river to Pontianak. But, the cost of the transportation was not worthy with the goods that they bring. The students are also have the difficulties to get the education. Most of the teacher can not stand teaching there. The transportation because of the bad road, caused the teacher can not teach, or they do not want to come there. No wonder if in another region there is a term dropped out students, in Tebang Kacang the term is dropped out teacher.

There is no hope to life in Tebang Kacang. Most of the youth left the relocation. They go to various region in west Kalimantan. There are some of them that go to Malaysia and Saudi Arabia. They become woman workers there.

Now, most of the people that life in the relocation are parents and the widows. A woman institution gathered the widows in an activity. They met once in a few weeks. They strengthen each other and share their story. They make various activity and skill. They were bounded by the feeling of togetherness. They are the people that left behind and broken out.

the riots began from the Parit Setia village, that well known by the bleeding lebaran tragedy. Bambang Hendra Suta Purwana in conflict of ethnic community in sambas 1999 noted that the riot was triggered by an attack to the society on January 19 1999, or on Idhul Fitri. This attack caused 3 villagers died, and 2 people got injured.

There are two version of the cause of that riots. The version of Sambas Malay, on January 17 1999, Hasan bin Niyam, a Maduranese, was caught and hit because he was suspected to steal in Amat bin Tajuin house, a Malay. After being caught, Hasan was arrested by the police.

In the version on Maduranese, 3 people drunk and they took a rented motorbike to Parit Setia village. They suddenly knocked a house and asked for the ride. When the got undressed, they took out their sickle. The house owner scared and yelled to the burglar. That made people came to the house. Ane of them was caught and beated the people.

Many aspects have tried to make peace on the bleeding lebaran. There a peace point, but in other place, there was a stab. Rude, a Maduranese, stab Idris, a Malay. Rudi did not want to pay the fee, so he was stopped on the road. That case triggered the riot to be wider to the entire Sambas.

Subro, an activist Mitra Sekolah said that Sambas riot is just about time. There was a precondition before the riot explode. The riot in 1997 was near to the public election. And the riot in 1999 was also near to the public election. That condition also triggered by the lots of jobless people. Until now, the chronologist and the caused is not finished yet.

The police headquarters, as written in D&R magazine edition 3-8 mei 1999, ever pointed Prof. Parsudi Suparlan to lead the anthropologist, sociology and psychology experts to find out the root of the conflict that happened along 9-20 april 1999. the team member were Prof. Budhisantoso, Prof. Sardjono Jatiman, Prof. Sarlito Wirawan, dan Prof. Syarif Ibrahim Alqadrie.

Suparlan assumed that the conflict between the ethnic communities in sambas happened because the Maduranese in sambas generally want to be the winner. But there are no rules that they obey. Meanwhile, the Malay like Javanese, is more tolerance. Malay people prefer to life in peace. When Maduranese have a trouble, they will directly use their sickle and hurt other people. Malay people was afraid. Because Maduranese knew that malay was afraid to them, they were more brutal.

So, from where did the courage appear on the malay youth? According to Prof. Parsudi Suparlan, in the article in DR magazine, this is the accumulation of the pressure that they have felt for years.

When the riot in sambas were getting bigger, people were carried by a truck and some of them by using the ship of navy seals. ”people who picked up the victim and did the handling from the beginning was the Maduranese, and Maduranese students. The others perhaps became more stereotype, no one moved”, said Subro.

A long debate was still happening between the youth of west Kalimantan and the Maduranese when the refugees got closed to Pontianak. In that meeting, the government refuse to accept the refugees in the public facilities, just like sport building, Sultan Syarif Abdurahman stadion and Khatulistiwa badminton stadion, and hajj dormitory. ”the reason of the refusal was easy, after the handling of the last refugees in 1997, that building was broken, and there were many goods that lost”. Said Subro.

The negotiation was held in the house of West Kalimantan governor. People that attended there were West Kalimantan governor Aspar Aswin, some head of official officers, students, and Maduranese H. Sulaiman. There were a student that was very upset and said, ”Well if we can not accept them, so just let them go to the sea!”

Things that always became the reason for the refusal was that Pontianak will be dump and dirty by the refugees. But finally, the government accepted the refugees in the public place.
All of that sport facilities were used by the refugees. The refugees stream was happened until 2000. in the shelter, the refugees got help just like food. The more refugees, the less the food together with the riots and Sampit, Ambon, Poso, etc.

Sambas riots caused many damages. Burnt houses, many victims. 401 Maduranese were died, 14 Malay, and 1 Dayaknese. Meanwhile 17 Maduranese, 45 Malay, and 3 Dayaknese got injured. Thousand of houses were burnt and crushed. 4367 houses belong to Maduranese, 22 Malay houses, and 21 from other tribes. The damaged house, consist of 239 Maduranese houses, and 6 Malay’s.

The number of the died people was just like the phenomenon of ice berg. Those who legally noted was predicted to be less than the real number of the victims. Many people that disappeared. On behalf of the stability, there were certain sides that intentionally reduced the number of the victims. They buried the body to many places.

The relocation on Tebang Kacang is one relocation from tens relocations that were built by the government after the ethnic riots in sambas. From the beginning, the regional and central government had made a deal to decide the acceleration steps in handling the refugees in 3 steps. First is relocation, deceit program, and reconciliation.

The first step, the government was deciding the relocation in Tebang Kacang. That location was jungle and bushes. The building of the reconstruction were trough some steps. The first step was in 1999. the first relocation that was built names SP (Satuan Pemukiman) 1 in Tebang Kacang. After the separation of the area, SP 1 include to the Mekar sari village area.

SP 1 is the example relocation. The government built 500 houses. The facilities in this area are complete. There is a road that connect to other area, electricity, school, mosques. Every house are facing the road and looks neat. Those houses were 5 x 7 meters width. The wall is made from 2 x 20 cm wood, they were stickled in line cross to the side. The houses are painted by white chalk. Every houses is given a half hectare yard, 1 hectare garden, and 2 hectares for business area. Water is taken from the rain. The water in from the well is reddish to black. It is the features of gambut water. Every houses will have 1500 water place from USAID.

The yard is black and dusty. The village road is a soil with the width about 3 meters. On the left and the right side there are small canal. Various plants grow up around the road. Since the last two years, government made a cement road with 1 meter width on the land road. That cement road only trough the main access in that village. Now, from more than 500 houses, there are only 385 families or 2163 people. They named the SP 1 with Madani.

After 2000. government built some living units like SP 2, SP 3, Zakia, and Rasau 3, etc. The project of relocation building was fully given to the contractor. The price of each house is cheap. Amri, the worker of Husin Baagil, a contractor in Zakia relocation stated that the cost of each house is 3.5 million.

That house was handled by the handyman with the cost is 150 thousand per unit. On three days, that house can be finished. To catch the deadline, every house was done carelessly. The house connector was only nailed. The house was made on the tree stump. Amri did 2000 house building project. It costs Rp 10 billion

There was an irrigation project. The purpose is to take the Kapuas river to the houses. The cost of the project was Rp 6 billion. In that project, government give 100 thousands land. Most of them belong to the government, so the huge cost were not needed for that relocation project. Amri said.

According to Amri, the refugees wanted to moved to 28 Oktober road in Pontianak. But, the land there is belong to the people there, so government has to pay for the payment to the people. There were no budget for that made government placed the relocation in Tebang Kacang and around it.

Another developer, H. Alawi said that the house price for the refugees is cheap. It is 3 million on size 4.5x5 meter. Alawi made the houses in SP 3 relocation. The benefit from that he use to buy the land for the other refugees. In SP 3 there are about 260 hectare. Every family got 25x25 meters land. Government give the farming land for about a quarter hectares.

Alawi is actually a refugee too. He did the evacuation because of the riots between Maduranese and Dayaknese in Sanggau Ledo in 1997. Alawi was born in Pontianak more than 50 years ago. His parents were in West Kalimantan since 1918. now his father is still alive and live in Desa Banjar Billah, Tambelangan sub district, Sampang district, Madura. His parents firstly came to West Kalimantan as a cow trader. He usually put ashore in Pemangkat, in Sambas harbors.

When the riots happened in 1999, government placed the refugees in Untan stadion, hajj dormitory, Pangsuma sport building, Kompi B 643, badminton sport building, Marhaban, Gudang Wajok and rice warehouse Syakirin. The refugees was helped by the government until two years. Every person got 3 ounce of rice each day, Rp 1500,-. It is little, and we understand that government do not have such a big number of money. Alawi said.

Less of the facility for take a bath, washing, the toilet and the sanitation made the many of the refugees got the disease, such as diarrhea, and others. Several people also died in there. There were a doctors, but the number of refugees were so many, so the doctors could not handle them all. Besides that, they were lack of nutrition and food.

The Government also gave two kinds of offering. First, placing the refugee in the relocation area by giving them Rp. 2,5 million, a house five times seven meter, one fourth hectares of field and two hectares industrial land. Second, for those who doesn’t want to be placed in relocation area, the government gave Rp. 5 millions for every head of family.

Alawi persuaded the public to leave the shelter and move to the relocation area. The reason was because of their life when they were in Sambas was not comfortable any longer. There was street, having land, cow, and any kinds of goods. We can say they were rich. Meanwhile, the relocation was merely a forest.

When the refugee moved to relocation SP 1, Alawi was one of those who moved firstly. He lived a year there. The destination is to give spirit and improve togetherness. Alawi had a house in Pontianak, and when he evacuated, he directly bought a house in Sepakat 2.

”Thanks God, we tried with the regional government to persuade them, so that they want to move. If they still stand to be refugee, when will they go forward?” Alwi said.

The movement of the refugee in the first step to SP 1 in 1999 mostly were from refugee in Sanggau Ledo riot. It was about to fail. Then, survey was redone. When the people started to leave the shelter, the other also did the same way. ”Those who leave do not want to stay in GOR Pangsuma and Stadion Untan any longer,” Alwi said.

The first refugee in Tebang Kacang got fertilizer. One family head can get 6 packs of fertilizers: 3 packs of urea, 2 SPs, and one KCl. But, the people couldn’t use the fertilizer. The relocation land was still like a forest. That’s why, they dumped it out, and some sold them. ”Long time ago, it’s difficult for us to pass away the land, moreover to give it fertilizer. If the government wanted to give the fertilizer, today is the right time,” Alwi said.

All cost of refugee came from the center government and taken from APBN. The government promised, if the refugee moved to relocation area, all facilities will be fixed up. In fact, the people had suggested it every month. Without the street, all of agricultural products such as vegetables finally was difficult to bring to Pontianak. If it could, the price must be expensive.

”We have already asked to the provincial government to build street, but there’s no response,” Alawi said. The reason is always about funding, because every region must need it. He realized that, West Kalimantan is not merely Tebang Kacang.

”Anyway, if we can build it step by step, the street will finally be here. And the people also have already been waiting for the promise along six years.”

Mostly, the people were farmers. They had no capital and their skill was just only farming. The problem of having no proper street is the problem till today. Saying that people can bring the agricultural product in the farming land, they would be not fresh anymore because of too long waiting for the boat to Pontianak.

As a picture, if the people will sell the product, he needs to rent a motorbike from the village to stagger (the harbors). The cost to rent the motorbike is about Rp. 7.000 for one people. If he brought a pack, he would be charged for Rp. 7.000. One pack heighten about 50 to 60 kilograms. From Pontianak stagger, he needs to go to boat and pays for Rp. 12.500. Waiting for the boat could take very long time, so that they vegetable could be not fresh anymore. The trip to Pontianak, in fact, needs 4 hours.

When at first moved to Tebang Kacang, Alawi was once mailed by Bengkayang Region Leader, Yakobus Luna. He asked Alawi and the other to go back to Bengkayang.

Government to help the refugees who will return and build a house. Bengkayang local governments have funds for that. Society considers Sanggau Ledo is like your own home. However, there are worries in the community. "Yes, if still Bengkayang Leader Mr. Luna. If other people Bengkayang Leader how? Later can secure no?" Said Alawi, fake greeting residents.

SP 1 citizens can send their children in elementary school of 67. SD is only four have a local building. The number of students as much as 185 people. So, the school turns. When the child class 1, 2, 3, entered the morning, the children's class 4, 5, 6 entering the day. Ideally, the school must build three more local. Two local to the class. A space for local teachers. The number of teachers' own six people.

The teachers’ office is in the warehouse. Teacher should add their number into nine people. They do not want to stay because the water is difficult to get. Honestly, we so not want to burden other teacher. Whoever come to teach, will replace other teachers that absent, Isbani said.

When first time teaching in 2001, Isbani not directly teach. But he looked for the information door to door to ask the people tell their experience. At the beginning, i taught not to make the students cleverer but to lost their trauma. Isbani said.

How? It is by playing while learning method, singing or make some jokes. For example, learning mathematics by singing. And by story telling method. He did it from 2001-2004. Isbani did not work alone. There are some human institution that have the program in the relocation area.

The private school is 9 km away from the relocation SP 1. to continue their education to high school, the students should come to Pontianak. Nowadays, there is SP 1 junior high school. He was feel challenged by the society to handled the students that have graduated from elementary school. With his own hard work, private junior high school was built. The first students were 17 people. One year later, he asked for operational permission. But it was not given to him. The reason is the junior high school is not worthy t get that. And that junior high school was held for two years.

In teaching, Isbani and other teacher do not get the salary. Finally he asked for help to the education department and that school become open school with module system. Now the students there are 40 people. In order to make the students want to study, Isbani has to fight by going to his students one by one. When there is a students that have difficulties in learning, and come to him after the school, he also happily accept them.

Isbani hopes that government are serious to give their attention to the teachers. Isbani himself do not have the transportation support or others. The insufficient facilities of the road caused the people can not have well education. Based on the data from education department, in 2004, the illiterate people in West Kalimantan in 131.590. From that number, 25.018 people are in Pontianak district.

The number of dropped out and poor students are plenty. According to Kholifah from human institution in Mekar village, SP 3, there are 154 people. They are students of elementary school and junior high school. In Zakiah village, there are 38 children. Oaks are expensive, so they can not afford to buy books.

The worst is in Zakiah relocation. To reach another area, people should cross the river the river and pay for Rp 10.000,-. If the children in the Zakia relocation want to get the education in junior high school, they have to cross the river. In Zakia, there is an elementary school. But teachers there are inactive. They like to make holiday longer and often absent in the school. Many people that protest that behavior.

The relocation of the refugees in SP 2, is worst. That relocation was built since 2000. the number of the family are 420, and the number of the people are 2114. most of the refugees are from Sejangkung sub district and Sekura, sambas.

In this relocation, there is no electricity. Whereas the distance from the electric pole is only 2 km. Long ago we were asking for the electricity to the government. Now, we want to pay it, so the electricity can reach SP 2. but until now, it can not be happen. Nihun said, he was the person who proposed the entrance of the refugees to the relocation SP 2.

People there live by farming. They plant the rice, corn, vegetables, ginger and pineapple. The marketing of the pineapple are difficult because there is no place to sell it. Ginger is the most developed plant there. Its age can reach 4-5 month. Ginger seeds 50 kg, can make 500 kg harvest. Its price is Rp 5000 per kg. It even can reach Rp 8000 per kg. The difficulty of transportation makes ginger price in relocation become Rp 2000 or kg. In relocation Sp 2, people can have tons of ginger.

But the result of farming is more difficult to sell. Moreover in rainy season, there will be no buyers, because the road can not passed.

Government promised to build the road. But infect, until now there is no road building. The reason is government lack of fee. SP 2 is only 11 km from Supadio airport Pontianak.
People have to ride their bicycle for about 5 km to sell their goods to the market. It can be given to other people, but the cost for it is expensive too. One bags is usually 50 kg.

In relocation SP 2, people get a house, a 25x200 meters land. That is the yard. The yard for business until now can not be given, while government promised to give 2 hektare for each family.

If the economic condition, it can be said that we will forget about the riots. But, when we find the difficulty, we will remember about it again. Nihun said. **

Indonesia Play Boy Magazine, December 2006

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